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  • 農業技術:枇杷采收后該如何管理?
  • 本站編輯:杭州余杭賽金果枇杷研究所有限公司發布日期:2019-12-15 11:56 瀏覽次數:
枇杷,別名:蘆橘、金丸、蘆枝,薔薇科、枇杷屬植物,枇杷原產中國東南部,因葉子形狀似琵琶樂器而名,其花可入藥。花期10一12月,果期第二年5—6月。枇杷與大部分果樹不同,在秋天或初冬開花,果子在春天至初夏成熟,比其他水果都早,因此被稱是“果木中獨備四時之氣者”。
 
農業技術:枇杷采收后該如何管理?
    枇杷果實成熟時正當初夏水果淡季,且果形美觀,果肉柔軟多汁,酸甜可口,風味佳,營養豐富,為度淡鮮果佳品,深受人們喜愛。
 
        枇杷成熟于初夏,高溫多雨季節,容易腐爛,不耐貯藏。在常溫下存放20多天,果實就會全部腐爛,給枇杷的銷售造成很大的壓力。因此,要及時適時采收。那么枇杷如何采收、采收后又該如何管呢?智慧農業網給大家總結了一下幾點:
 
枇杷要適時采收 
 
       枇杷采收時間應在溫度較低的上午、下午或陰天,絕不能在下雨天或高溫烈日下采收。
 
       枇杷的花期長,果實成熟期不一致,必須分批采收。枇杷果實沒有后熟作用,全面著色后品質基本上不會提高,但稍微早采品質就會顯著降低,所以要適期采收。枇杷充分成熟前15~20天即開始轉色,由黃綠色轉黃再轉橙紅或橙黃色。適宜采收期應是果皮充分著色,呈現出該品種完全成熟時所固有的色澤時,或稍延后3~5天采收。如需遠運或加工罐頭的果實則可適當提前,約八九成熟時采收。
 
農業技術:枇杷采收后該如何管理?
采收技術
 
  采摘技術好壞,直接影響到采后品質。枇杷果皮上有一層茸毛,稍加碰擦果皮即會受傷變色,采收時要特別小心、細致。必須備有“人”字形采果梯、采果鉤和采果籃等工具,采收時由下而上、由外向內順次進行。采摘時手執果穗基部剪下或折斷,手指不接觸果面,要輕拿輕放,以防茸毛臘粉脫落或果皮受損。所有盛放器具內壁均應平整光滑,用碎紙或布做襯墊物。枇杷采收后,應挑出傷果、裂果、病蟲果、畸形果和不合規格果,然后按果實大小分級包裝。技術運輸到銷售地,運輸要特別注意途中的環境溫度變化小、通風、換氣。采用冷鏈系統,在冷藏、運輸、銷售一系列過程中全部保持枇杷的環境溫度早在1-5℃。
 
枇杷采收后的管理
 
及時修剪、除草
        采收后的夏季修剪是枇杷最重要的一次修剪,宜早不宜遲。采果后枇杷的細弱枝、病蟲枝、枯枝及時剪除。對粗壯的枝條則要進行短截,以促發出壯實的夏梢。同時進行疏梢,對夏季抽發的新梢應保留2~3個壯實的新梢,其余抽生過多的新梢可從基部流除。
 
       清除枇杷院內的雜草,以防雜草與枇杷爭肥爭水。清除雜草后要把修剪后的枯枝爛葉清理掉,不能留在園內。
 
園區注意排水
 
        枇杷采摘后恰逢梅雨季節,要結合生態果園建設進行整園,減少水土流失。梯田種植園要清挖梯土內側排水溝,防止積水爛根。7月上旬出梅后,常出現季節性干旱,此時正是枇杷花芽分化期,要注意抗旱供水,并用稻草、油菜稈覆蓋樹盤,以提高抗旱能力,降低表土溫差。
 
施肥管理
 
        枇杷采后應重施基肥,培養健壯的夏梢,促進花芽分化。一般采果結束前10~15天施肥,肥料以有機肥為主,結合施化肥。產果20公斤左右的植株,可施雞鴨糞10公斤或餅肥2~3公斤,加沼肥20公斤,并增施鈣鎂磷肥1公斤。
 
農業技術:枇杷采收后該如何管理?
病蟲害防治
 
       枇杷在高溫、積水、高濕的條件下最容易發生枝葉病害,尤其是斑點落葉病、枝干腐爛病的防治。枇杷上除了病害還有蟲害的發生,枇杷采摘后要做好病蟲害的防治工作。
 
枝干腐爛病
 
        在排水防漬的基礎上于主干和主枝上刷石灰或涂1:2:10波爾多液,同時可在樹冠噴0.5%石灰倍量式波爾多液進行預防。若發現枝干有裂皮、腐爛病狀,可先修刮病部后涂藥液,再噴樹干和樹冠。
 
枇杷黃毛蟲
 
        黃毛蟲蟲卵散產于嫩葉背面,孵出的初齡幼蟲群集,可人工摘葉片捕殺。二齡后的幼蟲分散為害,應噴20%殺滅菊酯2000倍液防治。
Loquat, also known as Luju, Jinwan and Luzhi, belongs to Rosaceae and loquat. Loquat is native to Southeast China. It is named for its leaf shape like a lute instrument, and its flower can be used as medicine. The flowering period is from October to December, and the fruiting period is from May to June in the second year. Loquat is different from most fruit trees. It blooms in autumn or early winter. Its fruit ripens from spring to early summer, earlier than other fruits. Therefore, loquat is known as "the only one with four seasons in fruit trees".
 
Agricultural Technology: how to manage loquat after harvesting?
 
Loquat fruit is in the off-season of early summer when it is ripe, and it has beautiful shape, soft and juicy pulp, sweet and sour taste, good flavor and rich nutrition. It is a good product of fresh and light fruit, which is deeply loved by people.
 
Loquat is mature in early summer, high temperature and rainy season, easy to rot, not resistant to storage. When stored at room temperature for more than 20 days, the fruits will all rot, which will cause great pressure on Loquat sales. Therefore, it is necessary to harvest in time. So how to harvest loquat, how to manage after harvest? The intelligent agriculture network summarizes the following points:
Loquat should be picked timely
Loquat should be harvested in the morning, afternoon or cloudy days with low temperature, and never in rainy days or hot sun.
Loquat has a long flowering period and different fruit maturity, so it must be harvested in batches. Loquat fruit has no post ripening effect, and the quality will not be improved after full coloring, but the quality will be significantly reduced after a little early harvesting, so it is necessary to harvest in proper time. The color of loquat begins to turn from yellow green to yellow and then to orange red or orange yellow 15-20 days before it is fully mature. The suitable harvest time is when the peel is fully colored, showing the inherent color of the variety when it is fully mature, or slightly delayed for 3-5 days. If it is necessary to transport or process the canned fruit far, it can be harvested in advance, about 89 years.
Agricultural Technology: how to manage loquat after harvesting?
Harvesting technology
Picking technology directly affects the quality after picking. There is a layer of fluff on the skin of loquat fruit. If you rub the skin slightly, it will be damaged and discolored. You should be very careful and careful when harvesting. Tools such as "herringbone" fruit ladder, fruit picking hook and fruit picking basket must be provided, and the picking shall be carried out from bottom to top, from outside to inside in sequence. When picking, the base of the ear should be cut or broken, and the fingers should not touch the surface of the fruit, so as to prevent the fluffy wax powder from falling off or the peel from being damaged. The inner wall of all containers shall be flat and smooth, with shredded paper or cloth as pad. After loquat harvest, the damaged, cracked, diseased, deformed and substandard fruits should be picked out and packed according to the size of the fruits. When the technology is transported to the place of sale, special attention shall be paid to the small change of ambient temperature, ventilation and air change during transportation. With cold chain system, the environmental temperature of loquat was kept as early as 1-5 ℃ in the process of refrigeration, transportation and sales.
Management of loquat after harvest
Timely pruning and weeding
The summer pruning after harvest is the most important pruning of loquat, which should be done sooner rather than later. After fruit picking, the thin and weak branches, pest branches and dead branches of loquat should be cut off in time. The thick branches should be cut short to promote the strong summer shoots. At the same time, two or three strong shoots should be kept for the summer shoots, and the rest of the excessive shoots can be removed from the base.
Remove weeds in loquat yard to prevent weeds from competing with loquat for fertilizer and water. After weed removal, the pruned dead branches and rotten leaves shall be removed, and they shall not be left in the garden.
Pay attention to drainage in the park
Loquat picking coincides with the plum rain season. It is necessary to integrate the ecological orchard construction to reduce soil erosion. The drainage ditch inside the terraced soil shall be cleared in the terraced planting garden to prevent ponding and rotten roots. In the first ten days of July, after plum blossom, there is often a seasonal drought. At this time, it is the flower bud differentiation stage of loquat. Attention should be paid to drought resistance and water supply, and straw and Rape Stalk should be used to cover the tree tray, so as to improve the drought resistance ability and reduce the surface soil temperature difference.
Fertilization management
Loquat should be fertilized again after harvest to cultivate strong summer shoots and promote flower bud differentiation. Generally, fertilizer is applied 10-15 days before the end of fruit picking, mainly organic fertilizer, combined with chemical fertilizer. For plants with fruit yield of about 20kg, 10kg of chicken and duck manure or 2kg of cake fertilizer, 20kg of biogas fertilizer and 1kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer can be applied.
Agricultural Technology: how to manage loquat after harvesting?
Pest control
Loquat is most prone to branch and leaf diseases under the conditions of high temperature, water and humidity, especially the control of leaf spot and stem rot. In addition to the diseases, there are also insect pests on loquat. After picking loquat, we should do a good job in pest control.
Stem rot
Brush lime or apply 1:2:10 Bordeaux solution to the trunk and main branches on the basis of drainage and water proofing, and spray 0.5% lime multiple Bordeaux solution to the crown for prevention. If the branches are found to have split skin and rotten disease, they can be scraped first, then coated with liquid medicine, and then sprayed with trunk and crown.
Loquat yellow caterpillar
The eggs of the yellow caterpillar are scattered on the back of the tender leaves, and the hatchling larvae can be collected and killed manually. For the second instar larvae, 20% pyrethroid 2000 times solution should be sprayed.