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  • 枇杷秋季管理技術要點
  • 本站編輯:杭州余杭賽金果枇杷研究所有限公司發布日期:2019-11-18 19:52 瀏覽次數:
秋季枇杷生產管理,是全年枇杷生產中的重要環節之一,特別是枇杷生產的次適宜區的栽培區域。秋季既是枇杷秋梢生長期,又是花芽發育期,故管理工作要盡力圍繞有利于促進花芽能良好的發育和推遲開花;避開次適宜區的凍害;還能抑制枇杷秋梢的抽發和生長而進行。主要抓好以下幾項工作。 Loquat production management in autumn is one of the important links in loquat production throughout the year, especially the cultivation area of the sub suitable area for loquat production. Autumn is not only the growth period of loquat autumn shoots, but also the development period of flower buds. Therefore, the management should try to focus on promoting the good development of flower buds and delaying flowering, avoiding the frost damage in the sub suitable area, and inhibiting the extraction and growth of loquat autumn shoots. We will focus on the following tasks. 一、枇杷晾根。在開花前結合施花前肥時,耙開根部土壤10~15厘米左右深的土層,讓露出的根系晾曬10~15天,這樣截斷了部分細根,達到抑制秋梢的生長,然后施肥覆土。 I. loquat root drying. Before flowering, rake the soil layer about 10-15 cm deep in the root soil and let the exposed roots dry for 10-15 days, so as to cut off some fine roots and inhibit the growth of autumn shoots, and then apply fertilizer to cover the soil. 二、枇杷施肥。這次肥料以有機肥為主,氮、磷、鉀結合。株施腐熟的欄肥15~20公斤或餅肥1.5~2公斤,并搭配三元復合肥0.2~0.25公斤;也可施有機無機復混肥1.5~2.0公斤。這樣可促發新根,健壯樹冠,并能促進花芽發育充實,提高花芽的素質,推遲開花,延長開花期,從而增強樹體自身和花果的抗寒抗凍能力,為翌年枇杷豐產打下堅實的基礎。此項工作要求在9月底枇杷現蕾前完成。 Second, loquat fertilization. This time, the main fertilizer is organic fertilizer, which combines nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It can be applied with 15-20 kg of rotten fertilizer, 1.5-2 kg of cake fertilizer, 0.2-0.25 kg of ternary compound fertilizer, and 1.5-2.0 kg of organic-inorganic compound fertilizer. In this way, it can promote the development of new roots, strengthen the crown, enrich the development of flower buds, improve the quality of flower buds, delay the flowering and extend the flowering period, so as to enhance the cold resistance and frost resistance of trees and flowers and fruits, and lay a solid foundation for the next year's loquat yield. This work is required to be completed before loquat buds appear at the end of September. 三、枇杷疏梢。為了減少養分的消耗,使養分集中到基礎好的花穗上,同時使樹體積累更多的養分,提高樹體的抗寒能力,也為翌年開花結果貯備充足的營養。1、疏去密生枝、衰弱枝、病蟲枝,最好保留枝粗葉茂的夏梢花穗枝。2、若有小量的秋梢抽發,也要及時地疏去。3、可直接使用“促花王2號”,控制秋梢抽發,讓樹體的生長機能向生殖機能轉化,為來年的豐收打下基礎。 Third, loquat thinning. In order to reduce the consumption of nutrients, concentrate the nutrients on the flowers with good foundation, accumulate more nutrients in the tree volume, improve the cold resistance of the tree body, and reserve sufficient nutrients for the next year's flowers and fruits. 1. The dense branches, weak branches and disease and insect branches should be sparsely removed, and it is better to keep the summer flower spike branches with thick leaves. 2. If there is a small amount of autumn treetops, they should also be removed in time. 3. It can be used directly to control the autumn treetop pumping, so as to transform the growth function of the tree into the reproductive function, and lay the foundation for the harvest of the next year. 四、枇杷防病治蟲 IV. loquat disease control and insect control (一)枇杷防病 (I) loquat disease prevention 1、枇杷灰斑病:近年來此病危害枇杷越來越嚴重,使新梢不能展葉甚至枯死;蕾枯花爛,嚴重時整個花穗枯死。各地果農要高度重視該病的防治。尤其是上年危害嚴重的果園要嚴加防范,在花穗出現之前噴藥2~3次。防治藥劑可選用:50%灰網可濕性粉劑1000倍,或25%撲瑞豐懸浮劑800倍,或68.75%易保水分散粒劑1500倍,噴藥時適當加入“新高脂膜”,可有效增強藥效。 1. Loquat gray spot disease: in recent years, loquat is more and more seriously damaged by this disease, so that the new shoots can not develop leaves or even die; the buds are withered and the flowers are rotten, and the whole flower ear dies when it is serious. All fruit farmers should attach great importance to the prevention and control of the disease. In particular, the orchards that were seriously damaged in the previous year should be strictly prevented, and spray 2-3 times before the appearance of spikes. The control agents can be selected as follows: 1000 times of 50% gray net wettable powder, 800 times of 25% perrifeng suspension, or 1500 times of 68.75% Yi Bao water dispersible granule. When spraying, the "new high lipid film" can be added properly, which can effectively enhance the efficacy. 2、枇杷枝干腐爛病,該病發病重時造成植株死亡,故要在發病初期就要抓好防治工作。發現病斑及時刮除,然后涂“護樹將軍”于樹體,使病斑迅速干枯脫落,并保護樹體健康恢復。 2. Loquat stem rot disease, which causes plant death when the disease is serious, so we should pay attention to the prevention and control work in the early stage of the disease. In case of any disease spot, it shall be scraped off in time, and then painted with "general tree protection" on the tree body, so that the disease spot can quickly dry and fall off, and protect the health of the tree body. (二)枇杷治蟲 (II) loquat insect control 1、枇杷黃毛蟲:該蟲危害葉片,受害后影響葉片的光合作用和樹體的養分積累。藥劑可選用:1.8%蟲螨殺星乳油3000~4000倍,或5%銳勁特乳油1000~1500倍,或2.5%功夫乳油2000~3000倍等。 1. Loquat yellow caterpillar: it damages the leaves and Affects Photosynthesis and nutrient accumulation of the leaves. The medicament can be selected as follows: 1.8% insecticidal emulsifiable concentrate 3000-4000 times, or 5% Regent emulsifiable concentrate 1000-1500 times, or 2.5% Kungfu emulsifiable concentrate 2000-3000 times, etc. 2、舟形毛蟲:該蟲食量大,危害重,必須十分注意檢查,做到有蟲必治。防治藥劑同上。 2. Scaphoid caterpillars: this insect has a large amount of food and serious harm. It must be inspected very carefully to ensure that there are insects that must be treated. The control agent is the same as above.